White Papers

CWDM MUX/DEMUX Passive Optical Interconnect

February 2020

Abstract: A novel concept for integrating the MUX/DEMUX functionality of coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) into passive fiber optic connectors via expanded beam ferrules is presented, including optical modeling and preliminary empirical results. © 2020 Optical Society of America. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited.

Increasing Duplex Connector Density While Maintaining User Accessibility

September 2019

Abstract: As data consumption continues to increase, so does the relative bandwidth of data centers, central offices and head-ends. Reducing the overall optical hardware footprint in these highly controlled environments reduces real estate capital expenses, maintenance and speeds up installation. One method to achieve a reduced hardware footprint is by increasing connector density at the panel and transceiver by reducing the size of the connector and adapter. Until now, the smallest standardized single fiber connector is the LC connector, with a typical 1 rack unit capacity of 144 fibers. The LC connectors are commonly installed in pairs, called duplex LC, for transmit and receive communications. A new Very Small Form Factor (VSFF) connector, the MDC connector, was developed in an effort to achieve an appropriate balance of usability with minimal size while continuing to meet the carrier grade performance requirements of Telcordia GR-326. © 2019 US Conec, Ltd. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited.

A Single-Mode Expanded Beam Separable Fiber Optic Interconnect for Silicon Photonics

March 2019

Abstract: An expanded beam optical interconnect is introduced that provides a separable connection between photonic integrated circuit and single-mode fiber. Insertion loss data are provided and stability through solder reflow is demonstrated. © 2019 Optical Society of America. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited.

A Mechanical-Optical Interface for 25+ Gbps VCSEL/PD Fiber Coupling

January 2017

Abstract: As parallel optics data rates transition from 10 Gbps to 25 Gbps and beyond, VCSELs and photodiodes (PDs) are evolving to support the higher transmission rates. In order to maintain system performance as speeds increase and tolerances become tighter, an improved method is needed to efficiently couple VCSEL/PD array optical outputs to fiber optic networks. The mechanical-optical interface (MOI) is a monolithic component with an array of collimating lenses designed for efficient coupling between the on-board active components and a detachable fiber optic connector. © 2017 Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

Performance Methodology and Characterization of a Multi-Fiber Expanded Beam Lensed Optical Interconnect

April 2016

Abstract: The demand for high performance, cost-effective optical interconnects is driving the need for novel connectors in the optical communication industry. A multi-fiber lensed ferrule has been introduced that addresses backplane and ganged application requirements through the use of molded, expanded beam optics. The new ferrule maintains the same footprint as traditional multi-fiber ferrules, but uses an array of lenses on the front face to expand and collimate up to sixty-four channels simultaneously. The monolithic ferrule uses a hermaphroditic post and hole mating system to eliminate the costs associated with traditional steel alignment pins. The final result is a collimated beam connector system that enables debris insensitive connections for standard multi-mode optical fiber. © 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

Development and Qualification of a Mechanical Optical Interface for Parallel Optics Links

February 2015

Abstract: As parallel optics applications continue to expand, there remains a need for an effective coupling interface between the board-level active components and the passive components of the network. While mid-board level photonic turn connectors are available, coupling interfaces are generally not available outside of proprietary solutions. Development of a general mechanical-optical coupling interface opens the door for broader parallel optics implementation. © 2015 Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

Theoretical and Empirical Qualification of a Mechanical Optical Interface for Parallel Optics Links

February 2015

Abstract: As the implementation of parallel optics continues to evolve, development of a universal coupling interface between VCSEL/PD arrays and the corresponding photonic turn connector is necessary. A newly developed monolithic mechanical-optical interface efficiently couples optical transmit/receive arrays to the accompanying fiber optic connector. This paper describes the optical model behind the coupling interface and validates the model using empirical measurements. © 2015 Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

Multi-Fiber, MT Ferrule Endface Fiber Tip Displacement Model for Physical Contact Interconnects

2007

Abstract: This paper describes a simplified model linking MT ferrule and connector attributes to positive contact performance. Validation with FEA, experimental apparatus and empirical results are described, along with topics for future study. © 2007 Optical Society of America. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited.